Approximately 3.287 million km2
Approximately 1.4 billion people (second only to China)
Indian Rupee (INR)
Located in South Asia, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent and facing the Indian Ocean
Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, etc.
Hindus make up about 80% of the inhabitants, and Muslims make up more than 10%.
Hindi is the official language of the federal government and English is the quasi-official language, but many other languages are used.
Central India has the fertile Hindustan Plain and the western part is the Thar Desert.
The Himalayas occupy the northeastern border, and the Deccan Plateau occupies most of the south.
India is blessed not only with its land, but also with its climate and soil.
- Coastal areas and Deccan Plateau → Tropical
- In the Ganges, upstream → Temperate
- Near the border with Pakistan → Arid
- Mountainous area → Alpine
From the 25th century BC to the 18th century BC, the Indus Valley Civilization flourished here.
Later, the Aryans (Indo-European) who arrived here introduced Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
From the middle of the 18th century, British colonization progressed, and the Great Indian Rebellion of 1857 made the country under the direct control of Britain.
In 1877, the British Indian Empire (~ 1947) was founded with Queen Victoria as the emperor.
After World War I, the anti-British independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi became active.
His enthusiasm for nonviolence and peace was sympathized by many.
Then, in 1947 after World War II, India finally became independent of Britain, but it was divided into two countries, the Dominion of India and Pakistan.
After the 1960s, the country’s economy was sluggish due to the intensification of border conflicts, but it rebounded in the 1990s with the shift from socialism to economic liberalization.
In recent years, India has been attracting attention from all over the world, especially as an IT powerhouse.