The Svalbard Treaty was signed in Paris on February 9, 1920.
The islands now belong to Norwegian territory, but various countries once claimed sovereignty.
Until the early 20th century, not only Norway but also European countries and the United States claimed sovereignty here, exploring and mining coal.
With the signing of this treaty, Norway now owns it, giving other member states the following rights:
- Prohibit any military activities in the Svalbard Islands.
- When citizens of member countries enter the island, there is no need for customs or visa examination.
- Taxes collected on the island are used only on the island and are prohibited from being used in mainland Norway.
As of 2017, 45 countries have joined the treaty, but only Norway and Russia are actually conducting economic activities locally.
– Wikipedia: Svalbard Treaty